focus, -i m.
hearth; altar.

circumversus, -a, -um
neat, tidy. Supply et between purum and circumversum.

cotidie adverb

priusquam conjunction
before; here followed by the subjunctive (eat) to indicate purpose or intent.  The subject of the verb is the unexpressed vilica (also in the following subjunctives).

cubito (1)
lie down; sleep. The form cubitum is a supine (a verbal noun of the 4th declension which expresses purpose after verbs of motion); translate it as though it were an infinitive.

eo, ire, ivi, itum
go; proceed. The mood is dependent on priusquam; although habeat has the same subject (vilica), it is an independent subjunctive of command (jussive).

Kal[endis], Idibus, Nonis: The first day of any month was called the Kalendae (Calends).  The Idus (Ides) occurred on the 15th day of March, May, July, and October, but on the 13th day of all the other months.  The Nonae (Nones) occurred on the 7th day of March, May, July, and October, but on the 9th day of the other months.

festus, -a, -um

corona, -ae f.
garland, wreath; crown. The Romans wove branches or flowers into a circle for honorary, civic, social and religious purposes.  Women often prepared these at home or worked as garland makers.

indo, -ere, indidi, inditum
place, hang; jussive subjunctive with vilica as subject.

copia, -ae f.
resources, means; pro copia = as she is able.

supplico (1) + dative
worship, pray to.

Note: see Pedar Foss, “Watchful Lares: Household organization and the rituals of cooking and eating,” in Domestic Space in the Roman World: Pompeii and Beyond, eds. Ray Laurence and Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Journal of Roman Archaeology, Supplementary Series 22 (1997) 196-218.

huic: the paterfamilias of the household, Euclio.

cottidie adverb

tus, turis n.

corona, -ae f.
wreath of flowers; garland.

supinus, -a, -um
palms upward; translate with manus in the ancient ritual gesture of prayer.

rusticus, -a, -um
rustic, of the countryside.

fero, ferre, tuli, latum
raise; bear; move; with dative of direction (caelo).

nascor, nasci, natus/a sum
be produced; be born; ablative absolute with luna, the beginning of the month, the proper time for giving sacrifice to the household gods.

Phidyle, -is f.: a proper name, in Greek = thrifty.

tus, turis n.
incense; frankincense. The burning of incense, an expensive resin from trees imported from the East, to release its aromatic smoke during a religious ceremony predates the Romans.

placo (1)
appease, placate; placaris is a syncopated form of the future perfect active indicative.

hornus, –a, –um
of this year, this year’s; translate with fruge.

frux, frugis f.
harvest; crop; produce; the sacrifice is often offered in the form of a sheaf or garland.

avidus, -a, -um
greedy, hungry.

porca, -ae f.
female pig, sow. The sacrifice of pigs, bulls, heifers, birds often accompanied Roman religious rituals in which burnt offerings from a perfect victim were made to the gods.

autem conjunction
moreover; but; indeed.

placeo, -ere, -ui, -itum + dative
please; satisfy; placet is here used impersonally: it is agreed.

suscipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum
undertake; future perfect active indicative (translate as simple future).

officium, -i n.
duty, responsibility; office.

castus, -a, -um
pure, chaste; pious; predicate adjective with esse, modifying eum.

continens, -entis
temperate, continent.

oportet, -ere, -uit
one ought, should (impersonal); infinitive in indirect statement after placuit with eum as the subject.

quoniam conjunction
seeing that; in view of the fact that; because; it opens a clause of reason whose verb is in the subjunctive (sit) because it is a subordinate clause in indirect statement.

totum, -ius n.
everything; the whole matter; totum in eo sit ne: everything depends on the fact that….

contrecto (1)
handle, touch; contrectentur is in the subjunctive following ne (=ut non).

poculum, -i n.

cibus, -i m.

impubis, -is
below the age of puberty; the adjective is functioning as a noun in the ablative, indicating agency after contrectentur.

absens, -entis
abstaining; holding back; superlative adjective in parallel construction with impubi.

venerius, -a, -um
relating to Venus/sex; in the ablative after abstinentissimo,  it modifies rebus.

quibus:  its antecedent is rebus veneriis.

operatus, -a, -um
busied, engaged in; takes the dative case (quibus). The adjective agrees with vir but it includes femina  as well (see the following plural verb).

debere: the infinitive in indirect statement after placuit; its subject is eos.

perennis, -e
unfailing, constant, perpetual; ablative of means after ablui. The reference is to flowing or "living" waters which could carry away impurities.

penus, -oris n.
provisions, the household’s store of foods.

contingo, -ere, -tinxi, -tinctum
touch, handle; contingant is in the subjunctive following priusquam (before) to indicate purpose or intent.

abluo, -ere, -lui, -lutum
cleanse, wash away; complementary infinitive (present passive) with debere.

soleo, -ere, solitus/a sum
be accustomed to.

pueritia, -ae f.

excedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum
leave, depart.

bulla, -ae f.
amulet; locket; knob; a pendant of leather or metal worn by Roman boys to protect them until puberty.

consecro (1)
dedicate, devote, consecrate (to the gods).

similiter adverb
similarly, in the same way.

pupa, -ae f.

suspendo, -ere, -pendi, -pensum
hang up; understand puella as the subject.

mania, -ae f.
the mother of the Lares  (proper name); plural, small images used as charms; perhapsVarro means dolls.

mollis, -e
soft; modifies pilas (probably made of wool or pieces of cloth).

pila, -ae f.

reticulum, -i n.
small net bag; hairnet. 

strophium, -i n.
breast band; headband.

nubens, nubentis f.
bride, woman being married; the subject of the sentence.

vetus, veteris
old, ancient; modifies lege Romana.

as, assis m.
as (a coin); originally called aes (bronze), it was minted in bronze and copper during the Republic and Empire; continuously devalued, the as became the Roman coin of lowest denomination in use.

maritus, -i m.

soleo, -ere, solitus/a sum
be accustomed to; nubentes are the subject of this verb as well as of  the following verbs in the subjunctive.

perveho, -ere, -vexi, -vectum
carry, bring; complementary infinitive after solebant (see also dare, ponere, solere resonare).

quem: three relative pronouns (their antecedents are unum [assem], alium [assem],tertium [assem]) introduce three relative clauses of characteristic with their verbs in the subjunctive: tenerent, haberent, condidissent (NB tenses).

tamquam conjunction
as if.

emo, -ere, emi, emptum
win over; purchase, buy; emendi is a gerund in the genitive after causa.

pes, pedis m.

focus, -i m.
altar; hearth; home.

sacciperium, -i n.

condo, -ere, -didi, -ditum
hide, conceal.

compitium, -i n.

vicinalis, -is, -e
of the neighborhood, neighboring.

resono (1)
make ring, make resound (as the coin hit the monument).

nam conjunction

quia  conjunction

nuptiae, -arum f. pl.

verecundia, -ae f.

postridie adverb
on the next day, on the day after.

nupta, -ae f.

vir, -i m.
husband; man.

dominium, -i n.
rule, power, ownership.

incipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum
begin, commence.

oportet, -ere, -uit
one ought, should (impersonal).

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus/a sum
acquire, attain.

res divina= religious service; sacrifice.

tu: Titus Pomponius Atticus, Cicero’s best friend and frequent correspondent, was  a wealthy member of the equestrian rank.

pridie adverb
the day before.

memini, -isse
remember, think of; memento is the future active imperative plural, a form often used in legal and religious documents.

Pomponia, -ae f.: sister of Atticus, unhappily married to Quintus Tullius Cicero.

Terentia, -ae f.: Cicero’s wife, who surprisingly divorced him late in their marriage.

matrem:  Cicero’s mother’s name is generally thought to be Helvia.

adiungo, -ere, iunxi, iunctum
add; join.

pila, -ae f.

effigies, -ei f.
model, image; effigy; modified by the gender adjectives viriles, muliebres.

lana, -ae f.

suspendo, -ere, suspendi, suspensum
hang up.

quod conjunction

festus, -a, -um

inferi, -orum m. pl.
deities of the underworld.

puto (1)
think, suppose; putarent is in the subjunctive because the author is repeating an explanation given by others.

quibus: the antecedent is Lares; the case is dative, following ponebantur.

tot...quot: correlatives
as many…so many.

caput, -itis n.
head; person, individual.

liber, -a, -um
free, not slave.

ut conjunction
so that; it introduces a purpose clause.

vivus, -a, -um
alive, living.

parco, -ere, peperci/ parci, parsum + dative
spare; parcerent is subjunctive in a purpose clause, the subject is Lares.

simulacrum, -i n.
image, likeness.

contentus, -a, -um
content, satisfied; predicate adjective with essent (the subject is Lares).

tam…quam conj.
just as…just so. Paulus uses unbalanced clauses to offer a startling parallel between damnati and nuptae that focuses on the prime elements in the rite.

interdico, -dicere, -dixi, -dictum
forbid, prohibit; passive infinitive followed by the ablative case.  This is the litteral expression of the sentence of banishment.

soleo, -ere, solitus/a sum
be accustomed to.

damnatus, -i m.
criminal; condemned person.

accipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum
receive, take, accept.

videlicet  adverb
clearly, plainly.

quia conjunction
because; since.

contineo, -ere, -ui, -tentum
keep together, contain; the subject is res.

itaque  conjunction
therefore, accordingly.

funus, -eris n.

prosequor, -sequi, -secutus/a sum
attend, escort.

supergradior, -gradi, -gressus sum
step over, walk over.

aspergo, -spergere, -spersi, -spersum
sprinkle; perfect passive participle agreeing with redeuntes.

purgatio, -onis f.
cleansing, purification.

genus, generis n.
kind, sort; modified by quod (=hoc).

suffitio, -onis f.
fumigation; this is the term for purification by burning of incense.

maior, -oris comparative of magnus, -a, -um
older; greater; the adjective modifies filii and is followed by the ablative of comparison (annis).

lugeo, -ere, luxi, ---
mourn; followed by ablatives of time here (anno, mense) and below.

minor, -oris comparative of parvus, -a, -um
younger; smaller; modifies filii; understand lugeri possunt.

mensis, -is m.
month; supply uno.

maritus, -i m.
husband;understand lugeri potest.

cognatus, -i m.
relative; understand lugeri possunt…mensibus.

proximior, -oris comparative of proximus, -a, -um
nearer, closer.

gradus, -us m.
degree; position; the Romans carefully calculated degrees of relationship.

contra adverb
differently; otherwise.

infamis, -is m./f.
disgraced/ dishonored person. While the legal indictment of infamia incurred the loss of social status and civic rights, Julius Paulus here refers to social censure of such behavior.

lugeo, -ere, luxi, ---
mourn; be in mourning; ad lugendum is a gerund phrase expressing purpose, followed by the accusative of extent of time ([unum] annum).

constituo, -ere, -ui, -utum
determine; resolve; set down; constituere is a syncopated form of constituerunt, with maiores as the subject.

maiores, -ium m. pl.

ut . . . ne conjunctions
so that … so that not; followed by the subjunctive (lugerent) in a purpose clause.

diu adverb
long time; diutius is the comparative form of the adverb (supply lugerent).

nullus, -a, -um
no; none; not at all.

quia  conjunction

legitimus, -a, -um
fit, proper, appropriate; understand ad lugendum.

honestus, -a, -um
respectable, proper; Seneca here voices Stoic disapproval of the display of grief, a model which Roman males of the classical period attempted to follow.

adsuetus, -a, -um
customary, usual.

numerus, -i m.
number; i.e., ten (in this section Ovid discusses the recurrent use of decem in Roman life).

servo (1)
preserve; keep; the subject is Romulus, who instituted Rome’s first calendar.

lugeo, -ere, luxi, ---
mourn ;be in mourning.

spatium, -i n.
period; space; the length of time is 10 months.

maestus, -a, -um
sad, mournful.

vir, viri m.
husband; man.

honor, -oris m.
duty; respect; office. Translateest impersonally.

tumulus, -i m.
burial mound; here, grave; locative case.

anima, -ae f.
soul; spirit.

placo (1)
placate, appease; the infinitive completes the meaning of honor and is in apposition to it.

paternus, -a, -um
paternal; of one’s ancestors.

exstruo,  ere, -struxi, -structum
heap up, construct.

munus, muneris n.
gift, dedication.

pyra, -ae f.

manes, manium m. pl.
the spirits of the dead.

tegula, -ae f.
roof tile; wall tile; roof (pl.); this is the first of a list of pious offerings.

porrigo, -ere, -regi, -rectum
offer; hold out; stretch, extend.

velo (1)
veil, cover.

corona, -ae f.

sparsus, -a, -um

frux, frugis f.
fruit of the earth; produce.

mica, -ae f.
grain, granule.

sal, salis m.

merum, -i n.
wine unmixed with water, pure wine.

mollio, -ire, -ivi, -itum

Ceres, -is f.
The goddess of crops, Ceres; here, by metonymy, grain.

viola, -ae f.
a violet; a flower (in general).

solvo, -ere, solvi, solutum
unbound, free,separate; i.e., flower petals.

addo, -dere, -didi, -ditum
add, join on.

prex, precis f.
prayer; although sound and word order join preces positis, they are grammatically separate.

focus, -i m.
altar; pyre; hearth; dative withpositis after addo.

proximus, -a, -um, superlative of prope
next, following; understand [festa] (= festival), n. pl. used often for the singular.

cognatus, -i m.
relative; the subject of dixere (syncopated form of dixerunt), modified by cari.

Karistia, -orum n. pl.
Karistia, the festival of the loved ones (cari); Ovid uses the archaic spelling from the Greek.

socius, -a, -um
kindred; allied.

turba, -ae f.
crowd; mob.

propinquus, -a, -um
closely related; as a noun = relation.

scilicet adverb
certainly, surely.

tumulus, -i m.
tomb, grave; a(b) tumulis is dependent on referre in the next line.

pereo, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum
perish, die; periere = perierunt, with qui as the subject.

protinus adverb

os, oris n.
face; mouth; direct object of referre.

refero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum
redirect; bring back; return; the basic construction is ora . . . ab tumulis et . . . propinquis. . . ad vivos.

iuvo (1)
delight, please.

post preposition + accusative
after; behind; since.

so many.

amissus, -a, -um <amitto, -ere, -missi, -missum
lost; deceased.

quisquis, quaequae, quodquod/quicquid
whoever, whatever; all.

sanguis, sanguinis m.
blood; blood-line.

resto, -stare, -stiti, --
remain, survive.

aspicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectum
gaze at; dependent on iuvat, it is parallel in construction with referre.

genus, generis n.
descent; birth; descendent.

dinumero (1)
count; reckon; i.e., the generations and degrees of relation are noted.

gradus, -us m.
degree; grade; step.

innocuus, -a, -um
free from guilt, blameless; subject of veniant, a hortatory (jussive) subjunctive.

procul adv.
far away,  with hinc = far from here.

impius, -a, -um
unfilial, undutiful

esto: future imperative of sum = be.  The next lines list the several subjects of this imperative.

partus, -us m.
offspring, children; accusative plural after in.

acerbus, -a, -um
harsh, severe; followed by in ( = toward, against).

cui: understand is as the antecedent (parallel with frater and mater) for both cui and qui.

vivax, vivacis
too long in living, long-lived.

digero, -gerere, -gessi, -gessum
enumerate, count off; i.e., the person (is) who is impatient to inherit from his father and mother.

premo, -ere, pressi, pressum
press hard, treat harshly.

invisus, -a, -um

socrus, -us f.

iniquus, -a, -um
unfair, perverse; wicked.

nurus, -us f.

tus, turis n.

boni = m. pl. vocative, subject the imperative date.

Concordia, -ae f.: the personified goddess of the virtue of harmony and friendship, highly valued by the Romans most especially in the institution of marriage.

fertur= it is said.

praecipue adverb
particularly, especially.

mitis, -is, -e
mild, gentle; soft.

adsum, -esse, afui, --
be present; support, assist.

libo (1)
make an offering.

daps, dapis f.
sacrificial feast, religious banquet.

gratus, -a, -um
pleasing; welcome; thankful.

pignus, pignoris/-neris) n.
token, assurance; in apposition with dapes.

honor, -oris m.
duty; respect; office.

nutrio, -ire
nourish, sustain; nutriat is in the subjuctive in a purpose clause after ut.

incinctus, -a, -um
girt, belted, having the tunic pulled up.  Lares are depicted as wearing their tunics short (perhaps for dancing, as they are often pictured).

patella, -ae f.
small shallow dish/plate from which libations were poured); modified by missa (=given as a gift).

ara, -ae f.

huc adverb
to this; hither.

curtus, -a, -um
short,broken; ablative of means.

rusticus, -a, -um
of the country side, rustic; modifies ipsa colona.

testum, -i n.
earthenware pot.

sumo, -ere, sumpsi, sumptum
borrow, take; modifies ignem.

tepidus, -a, -um

colona, -ae f.
farmer's wife; female tenant.

focus, -i m.
hearth, house-fire.

ter adverb
three times.

frux, frugis f.
corn; seed; produce; often found in the plural.

medius, -a, -um
middle of; modifies ignes.

porrigo, , -ere, -regi, -rectum
offer; hold out; stretch, extend; filia is the subject of inmissit as well.

incido, -ere, -cisi, -cisum
cut open; cut out.

favus, -i m.