Notes to Funerary Inscriptions for Julia Secunda & Cornelia Tyche

Di Manes, m. pl.
the spirits of the dead, the divine spirits; this phrase is in the dative case, indicating the object of the dedication; it is regularly found at the head of funerary inscriptions from the end of the 1st century BCE through the 2nd century CE.
Iulia Secunda: freeborn women were generally given the feminine form of their father's nomen. Julia received her second name either because she was the second daughter of Secundus and/or in honor of her father's cognomen. On tombstones the name of the deceased may be found either in the genitive (as possessor of the Dis Manibus) or in the dative, as the personal object of the dedication. Can you determine the case here?
Cornelia Tyche: probably a freedwoman, legally married (note the prominent use of the word uxor) to the freedman Iulius Secundus. Her slave name was Tyche, the name of the Greek goddess of fortune, a name she received perhaps because she originated in a Greek-speaking area of the Empire. Cornelia is the feminized form of the nomen (gens name) of her former owner. Tyches is the Greek form of the genitive case.
forma, -ae f.
appearance; shape; beauty; ablative of description or ablative dependent upon praestantissimae 3 lines below.
singularis, -e
unique, extraordinary; it modifies forma.
mos, moris m.
custom; character, behavior, morals (in pl.); ablative of description or ablative dependent upon praestantissimae 2 lines below.
pius, -a, -um
dutiful; filial, affectionate; upright; translate with moribus.
doctrina, -ae f.
learning, education; in the ablative case dependent on praestantissimae.
super, preposition + accusative
beyond; above, over; the prepositional phrase qualifies the claim praestantissimae doctrina.
legitimus, -a, -um
proper; customary; real; legal; modifies aetatem below.
sexus, -us m.
sex (here, female); modified by sui.
aetas, -tatis f.
age, life, time.
praestans, -antis + ablative
outstanding, preeminent; the superlative form of the adjective, it is in the genitive case in agreement with IVLIAE SECVNDAE FILIAE.
vivo, -ere, vixi, victum
live, be alive; enjoy life; the subject of the verb is quae.
mensis, -is m.
month; ablative of duration of time. Note that Julia Secunda was nearly at the minimum legal age for marriage.
incomparabilis, -e
unequalled, matchless; genitive of description.
erga, preposition + accusative
towards, against.
maritus, -i m.
husband; Secundus emphasizes their status as legally married here, refering to himself as maritus, just as above he named Tyche uxor.
adfectus, -us m.
disposition, fondness; modified by incomparabilis above.
sanctitas, -tatis f.
integrity, chastity; sacredness; modified by incomparabilis.
eximius, -a, -um
exceptional; genitive of description, modifying pietatis.
liberi, -orum m. pl.
pietas, -tatis f.
sense of duty to gods, family, country; love; patriotism.
mecum= cum me.
With the phrase ex [e]is cum me, Secundus announces the length of their marriage.

Close this window after final use.