Notes to Ovid, Amores 3.2

studiosus, -a, -um — fond of, devoted to, studious. Notice how nobilium equorum frames the alliteration of sedeo studiosus. The speaker is male; he courts a listening female in the stands at the Circus Maximus in Rome.

faveo, favere, favi, fautum — favor, support (followed by the dative case)

precor, precari, precatus sum — wish, pray, beg. Words associated with religious contexts mix with suggestive language and flattery as the speaker strives to capture his prize.

ut + subjunctive — introduces a purpose clause following veni

ne+ subjunctive — introduces a negative purpose clause following veni; use the following word order to translate: ne [meus] amor, quem facis, non notus esset tibi; the force of facio here is "incite" or "inspire."

cursus, cursus m. — race, course, running

specto, spectare, spectavi, spectatum — observe, watch, look at. The following spectemus is a hortatory subjunctive with uterque as the subject and quod iuuat as the object

pasco, pascere, pavi, pastum — feed on; parallel hortatory subjunctive, but whereas the previous uterque joins the two of them in similar activity, here it, with the verb in the 3rd person singular, emphasizes their separate interests.

agitator, agitatoris m. — driver, charioteer

ergo, adv.— then, so, well, therefore

contingo, contingere, contigi, contactum —touch; intransitive: happen, turn out, succeed. The following contingat introduces his wish-fantasy of being a charioteer, which reminds him of the courtship race of Pelops.

carcer, carceris m. — starting barrier at a race course, stall

insisto, insistere, institi, -- — (+ dative) urge on, press upon, pursue

veho, vehere, vexi, vectum — carry; drive, ride; the form is the gerundive.

lorum, lori n. — strap, whip, lash; (pl.) reins

verber, verberis n. — whip, lash

tergum, -i n. — back

noto, notare, notavi, notatum — brand, mark, write

stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictum — graze, trim, draw tight, strip off

meta, -ae f. — stone marker at the turning of the race course; cone

rota, rotae f. — wheel

moror, morari, moratus sum — delay, stay behind

remissus, -a, -um — relaxed, slack, sagging

fluo, fluere, fluxi, fluxum — flow, stream, emanate

at quam — exclamatory - "But, how . . ."

Pelops, Pelopis m. — son of Tantalus and Dione, grandson of Zeus. According to legend, Tantalus served his son, Pelops, to the gods as food. Demeter was the only one to touch the food by eating his shoulder. The gods restored Pelops to life and replaced his shoulder with one made of ivory. Pelops then went to Pisa as a suitor for Hippodamia (see below). By bribing Oenomaus's charioteer, Pelops won the chariot race, married Hippodamia, and became king of Pisa.

concido, concidere, concidi, concisus — fall dead, be slain, perish

hasta, -ae f. — spear, javelin, lance

vultus, vultus m.— looks, expression, face

Hippodamia, -ae f. — the beautiful daughter of Oenomaus, king of Pisa in Elis, who challenged all suitors for her hand to a chariot race; those who lost were killed. Suitors were forced to carry Hippodamia in their chariot, which her father followed and quickly overtook because he had divine horses. With Hippodamia's assistance, Pelops bribed her father's charioteer to loosen his chariot wheel; during the race it fell off and Oenomaus was killed.

frustra, adv. — in vain, for nothing, to no purpose. The speaker turns his attention to the seating arrangements in the Circus which favor his suit.

refugio, -fugere, -fugi, -- — flee, shun, shrink back

linea, -ae f.— line, threadlike stroke or mark. This is a reference to the line scored on the Circus benches which marked off individual seats.

commodum, -i n.— advantage, benefit. The speaker informs us that at the circus, men and women are allowed to sit together.

parco, parcere, parsi, parsum — spare, refrain from, leave alone (takes the dative). The speaker turns protectively to address the men seated around his love-object, thus claiming her as his own.

contactus, contactus m.— contact, touch

latus, lateris n. — side

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum — annoy, offend, hurt

contraho, -trahere, -traxi, -tractum — bring together, assemble, collect

crus, cruris n. — leg, shin

premo, premere, pressi, pressum — press hard, overwhelm

genu, genus n.— knee

demitto, -mittere, -misi, -missum — drop, sink, flow down. In growing intimacy, the speaker turns his attention to the girl's clothing.

pallium, palli(i) n.— woolen covering; cloak (often in the plural for the singular). The pallium was the Latin name for the large Greek cloak worn especially by Greek philosophers; it was also the garment worn by the hetaira (courtesan), both Greek and Roman.

digitus, -i m. — finger

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum — lift, raise

invidus, -a, -um — envious, jealous. The couplet begins and ends with the speaker's regretful address to the girl's clothing (invida vestis eras) as he contemplates her legs et cetera.

vestis, vestis f.— garment, clothing

tego, tegere, texi, tectum — cover, hide, protect

Milanion, Milanionis m. — (also known as Hippomenes) was a suitor of the beautiful huntress Atalanta. Knowing he could not run faster than she, he prayed for help to Aphrodite, who gave him three golden apples and told him to drop them one at a time to delay Atalanta during the footrace. Because she stopped to pick up the apples, Milanion won the race and married Atalanta.

Atalante, Atalantes f. — daughter of Iasus of Arcadia, who wanted a son and so left her exposed on a mountaintop. Artemis sent a female bear to suckle her and a group of hunters raised her. Eventually her father acknowledged her and wanted her to marry. Atalanta was not willing, but agreed to marry whoever could beat her in a foot race; any suitor who lost would be put to death. Note how talia and crura surround Milanion Atalantes.

fugax, fugacis adj.— swift, fugitive, shy

sustineo, sustinere, sustinui, sustentum — support, hold up, hold back

pingo, pingere, pinxi, pictum — paint, portray. The lover is making admiring referrence to icons of Diana which show her in a belted garment pulled up to the thigh.

succingo, -cingere, -cinxi, -cinctum — gather up with a belt or girdle, prepare for action

Diana, -ae f. — daughter of Jupiter and Leto, and twin sister of Apollo; goddess of the moon, hunting, forests and wild animals.

fera, -ae f. — wild beast, wild animal

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsum — burn, blaze, be on fire

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum — pour, cast, scatter

suspicor, -spicari, -spicatus sum— suppose, suspect

lateo, latere, latui, -- — escape notice, lie hidden

arcesso, -cessere, -cessivi, -cessitum — summon, invoke, send for

tabella, -ae f. — program, tablet; note how nostra . . . manu frames mota tabella, a poetic device called chiasmus.

aer, aeris m. — air, weather, atmosphere

aestus, aestus m — heat, passion; note the more complex chiastic arrangement of hic meus . . . aestus around animi non aeris, with est in the center of the line.

femineus, -a, -um — woman's, of women; unmanly. This adjective, with its masculine ending modifying amor, is a sly oxymoron.

torreo, torrere, torrui, tostum — scorch, burn, roast

spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsum — sprinkle, scatter, strew

pulvis, pulveris m. — dust, sand, powder

sordidus, -a, -um — dirty, unclean. It is in the vocative case because the speaker addresses the dust.

niveus, -a, -um — white, snowy

abeo, abire, abivi, abitus — go away, go off, depart

pompa, -ae f. — solemn procession, pomp, ostentation. Before the races begin, (gilt) images of the gods were brought in procession around the course and prominently placed to oversee the games. The speaker momentarily turns to look at and speak to the audience and the gods, but the sight of Venus leads him back to his chief object of interest, the woman beside him.

faveo, favere, favi, fautum — (w/ ablative of means) favor (+ dative); speak no words of bad omen, be silent; the ritual cry before religious ceremonies commence.

plausus, plausus m. — clapping, applause

fero, ferre, tuli, latum — carry, bring, bear, win

pando, pandere, pandi, passum — spread-out, extend, throw open

Victoria, -ae f. — goddess of Victory (Nike in Greek), appropriately first for competitive games.

pinna, -ae f. — feather, wing, flap (+ passis = ablative absolute)

facio, facere, feci, factumfac is the imperative, followed by the subjunctive; translate "bring it about that"

Neptunus, i m. — god of the sea, brother of Jupiter, husband of Amphitrite; associated with the Greek god Poisedon.

credo, credere, credidi, creditum — trust, entrust (+dative)

unda, -ae f. — wave

nil mihi — supply est.

pelagus, -i m. — sea, open sea

Mars, Martis m. — son of Juno, he fathered Romulus and Remus on the Vestal Virgin Rhea Sylvia, and thus is the father of the Roman people. Originally the Roman god of fertility and agriculture, he became associated primarily with battle and was widely worshipped by the Romans.

reperio, reperire, repperi, repertum — discover, find out, learn; note the emphatic placement of words: pax opens and amor closes the line.

auger, augeris m. — augur, diviner, seer

Phoebus, -i m. — epithet of Apollo, son of Jupiter and Leto, and twin brother of Diana; archer god of the sun, prophecy, music, and healing.

Phoebe, Phoebes f. — epithet of Diana, daughter of Jupiter and Leto, and twin sister of Apollo; goddess of the moon, hunting, forests and wild animals.

venor, venari, venatum — hunt, chase. Note the chiastic word order of the gods and their followers.

artifex, artificis, adj. — ingenious, artistic, craftsman's

Minerva, -ae f. — daughter of Jupiter, virgin goddess of warriors, wisdom, commerce, and the arts, especially weaving

ruricola, -ae m. — country-dweller, one who tills the land

Ceres, Cereris f. — daughter of Saturn and Rhea, sister of Jupiter, mother of Prosperpina; goddess of agriculture, grain, the country, and motherly love.

tener, tenera, tenerum — young, tender, weak

assurgo, -surgere, -surrexi, -surrectum — rise up, stand up, lift oneself up

Bacchus, -i m. — son of Jupiter and the mortal Semele, he was the god of wine, vegetation, poetry, religious ecstasy.

Pollux, Pollucis m. — born with his twin brother Castor from an egg laid by Leda, the swan, his father was Jupiter, his sisters were Helen and Clytemnestra, daughters of Tyndarus. A hero famous for his skill in boxing. He and his brother were inseparable as patron deities of seamen and voyagers and after their deaths were placed in the sky as the Gemini constellation. They were worshiped by the Romans as the Dioscuri (sons of Jupiter), whose assistence they claimed at the battle of Lake Regillus (hence a temple was built for them in the Forum).

pugil, pugilis m. — boxer, pugilist

Castor, Castoris m. — born with his twin brother Pollux from an egg laid by Leda, the swan, his father was Jupiter, his sisters were Helen and Clytemnestra, daughters of Tyndarus. Inseparable brother of Pollux, he was noted for his skill at taming and managing horses.

blandus, -a, -um — charming, smooth-talking, flattering, seductive

Venus, Veneris f. — daughter of Jupiter and Dione, she is also portayed as created by Uranus from the foam of the sea at the moment of his death; wife of Vulcan, the lame god of the forge, she is mother of Cupid, Hymen, Priapus and Aeneas. Goddess of love, nature, and beauty, she, along with her lover, Mars, the god of war, are the parent-gods of the Romans.

arcus, arcus m. — bow, arc, arch

inceptum, -i n.— beginning, undertaking

annuo, -nuere, -nui, -nutus — nod assent, declare, indicate, agree

mens, mentis f.- — mind (as the seat of passion)

patior, pati, passus sum — suffer, endure, allow, permit

motus, motus m — gesture, movement, motion

secundus, -a, -um — favorable, second

promitto, -mittere, -misi, -missum — promise, let grow; note how dea and ipsa frame promisit, promittas.

pax, pacis f. — peace; here, in the ablative, translate: "with the approval of"

testis, testis c. — witness

pendo, pendere, pependi,--- — hang down, hang. The speaker's gaze returns to his girl and he hastens to attend to her comfort and concerns.

cancellus, -i m. — railing, bars, barrier

insero, -sere, -serui, -sertum — insert, introduce

praetor, praetoris m. — an annually elected Roman magistrate whose office was just below that of the consuls, he had six bodyguards (lictores) and was allowed to wear the purple-bordered toga. The praetor urbanus remained in Rome, primarily as a judge in the law courts, but he could also convene the comitia and initiate legislation. In the late Republic through the Empire, he was also responsible for organizing and presiding over the public games (see praetor).

quadriiugus, -a, -um — yoked four abreast

studeo, studere, studui, ---- — wish, desire, be eager for (+dat.)

me miserum! — accusative of exclamation

orbis, orbis, m. — circle, world, sphere

admotus, -a, -um — lean on, bring up

axis, axis m. — axle, chariot, pole, sky

perdo, perdere, perdidi, perditum — ruin, destroy, lose, waste

votum, -i n. — vow, prayer, wish

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tensum — stretch, spread, distend

ignavus, -a, -um — lazy, idle, ignorant

Quiris, Quirites m.— inhabitants of Cures, the Sabine town; Roman citizen

iactatus, -a, -um — tossed, thrown away; a surprising act of popular intervention in the games.

turbo, turbare, turbavi, turbatum — disturb, agitate

abdo, -dere, -didi, -ditum — hide, remove

licet — it is allowed (followed by the subjunctive)

sinus, sinus m. — bosom, lap, folds

pateo, patere, patui, ---- — be open, stand open

resero, -serare, -seravi, -seratum — open up, unseal, unfasten

postis, postis m. — doorpost, door

evolo, -volare, -volavi, -volatum — fly away, fly forth

discolor, discoloris, adj. — of another color, not of the same color, variegated

agmen, agminis n. — line, flock, herd, stream

saltem, adv. — at least, anyhow

supero, -are, -avi, -atum — surpass, survive, conquer

insurgo, -surgere, -surrexi, -surrectum — stand up, rise against, grow, swell

ratus, -a, -um — established, fixed, certain. The speaker joins the girl in her wish for a winner, holding separate his own hopes; the race ends swiftly and satisfactorily, primising a similar conclusion to his post-race project.

supersum, -esse, -fui, -- — remain, survive, be sufficient

palma, -ae f. — palm, prize, hand, victory; note the anaphora and alliteration of "p" for emphasis. See Polydus with his winning team.

argutus, -a, -um — clear, graceful, witty, sly; after all the girls has won her way!

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Prepared by Kimberly Nickerson and Jennifer Pinheiro with the assistance of Ann Raia.