studiosus, -a, -um fond of, devoted to, studious. Notice how nobilium equorum frames the alliteration of sedeo studiosus. The speaker is male; he courts a listening female in the stands at the Circus Maximus in Rome.
faveo, favere, favi, fautum favor, support (followed by the dative case)
precor, precari, precatus sum wish, pray, beg. Words associated with religious contexts mix with suggestive language and flattery as the speaker strives to capture his prize.
ut + subjunctive introduces a purpose clause following veni
ne+ subjunctive introduces a negative purpose clause following veni; use the following word order to translate: ne [meus] amor, quem facis, non notus esset tibi; the force of facio here is "incite" or "inspire."
cursus, cursus m. race, course, running
specto, spectare, spectavi, spectatum observe, watch, look at. The following spectemus is a hortatory subjunctive with uterque as the subject and quod iuuat as the object
pasco, pascere, pavi, pastum feed on; parallel hortatory subjunctive, but whereas the previous uterque joins the two of them in similar activity, here it, with the verb in the 3rd person singular, emphasizes their separate interests.
agitator, agitatoris m. driver, charioteer
ergo, adv. then, so, well, therefore
contingo, contingere, contigi, contactum touch; intransitive: happen, turn out, succeed. The following contingat introduces his wish-fantasy of being a charioteer, which reminds him of the courtship race of Pelops.
carcer, carceris m. starting barrier at a race course, stall
insisto, insistere, institi, -- (+ dative) urge on, press upon, pursue
veho, vehere, vexi, vectum carry; drive, ride; the form is the gerundive.
lorum, lori n. strap, whip, lash; (pl.) reins
verber, verberis n. whip, lash
tergum, -i n. back
noto, notare, notavi, notatum brand, mark, write
stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictum graze, trim, draw tight, strip off
meta, -ae f. stone marker at the turning of the race course; cone
rota, rotae f. wheel
moror, morari, moratus sum delay, stay behind
remissus, -a, -um relaxed, slack, sagging
fluo, fluere, fluxi, fluxum flow, stream, emanate
at quam exclamatory - "But, how . . ."
Pelops, Pelopis m. son of Tantalus and Dione, grandson of Zeus. According to legend, Tantalus served his son, Pelops, to the gods as food. Demeter was the only one to touch the food by eating his shoulder. The gods restored Pelops to life and replaced his shoulder with one made of ivory. Pelops then went to Pisa as a suitor for Hippodamia (see below). By bribing Oenomaus's charioteer, Pelops won the chariot race, married Hippodamia, and became king of Pisa.
concido, concidere, concidi, concisus fall dead, be slain, perish
hasta, -ae f. spear, javelin, lance
vultus, vultus m. looks, expression, face
Hippodamia, -ae f. the beautiful daughter of Oenomaus, king of Pisa in Elis, who challenged all suitors for her hand to a chariot race; those who lost were killed. Suitors were forced to carry Hippodamia in their chariot, which her father followed and quickly overtook because he had divine horses. With Hippodamia's assistance, Pelops bribed her father's charioteer to loosen his chariot wheel; during the race it fell off and Oenomaus was killed.
frustra, adv. in vain, for nothing, to no purpose. The speaker turns his attention to the seating arrangements in the Circus which favor his suit.
refugio, -fugere, -fugi, -- flee, shun, shrink back
linea, -ae f. line, threadlike stroke or mark. This is a reference to the line scored on the Circus benches which marked off individual seats.
commodum, -i n. advantage, benefit. The speaker informs us that at the circus, men and women are allowed to sit together.
parco, parcere, parsi, parsum spare, refrain from, leave alone (takes the dative). The speaker turns protectively to address the men seated around his love-object, thus claiming her as his own.
contactus, contactus m. contact, touch
latus, lateris n. side
laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum annoy, offend, hurt
contraho, -trahere, -traxi, -tractum bring together, assemble, collect
crus, cruris n. leg, shin
premo, premere, pressi, pressum press hard, overwhelm
genu, genus n. knee
demitto, -mittere, -misi, -missum drop, sink, flow down. In growing intimacy, the speaker turns his attention to the girl's clothing.
pallium, palli(i) n. woolen covering; cloak (often in the plural for the singular). The pallium was the Latin name for the large Greek cloak worn especially by Greek philosophers; it was also the garment worn by the hetaira (courtesan), both Greek and Roman.
digitus, -i m. finger
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum lift, raise
invidus, -a, -um envious, jealous. The couplet begins and ends with the speaker's regretful address to the girl's clothing (invida vestis eras) as he contemplates her legs et cetera.
vestis, vestis f. garment, clothing
tego, tegere, texi, tectum cover, hide, protect
Milanion, Milanionis m. (also known as Hippomenes) was a suitor of the beautiful huntress Atalanta. Knowing he could not run faster than she, he prayed for help to Aphrodite, who gave him three golden apples and told him to drop them one at a time to delay Atalanta during the footrace. Because she stopped to pick up the apples, Milanion won the race and married Atalanta.
Atalante, Atalantes f. daughter of Iasus of Arcadia, who wanted a son and so left her exposed on a mountaintop. Artemis sent a female bear to suckle her and a group of hunters raised her. Eventually her father acknowledged her and wanted her to marry. Atalanta was not willing, but agreed to marry whoever could beat her in a foot race; any suitor who lost would be put to death. Note how talia and crura surround Milanion Atalantes.
fugax, fugacis adj. swift, fugitive, shy
sustineo, sustinere, sustinui, sustentum support, hold up, hold back
pingo, pingere, pinxi, pictum paint, portray. The lover is making admiring referrence to icons of Diana which show her in a belted garment pulled up to the thigh.
succingo, -cingere, -cinxi, -cinctum gather up with a belt or girdle, prepare for action
Diana, -ae f. daughter of Jupiter and Leto, and twin sister of Apollo; goddess of the moon, hunting, forests and wild animals.
fera, -ae f. wild beast, wild animal
ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsum burn, blaze, be on fire
fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum pour, cast, scatter
suspicor, -spicari, -spicatus sum suppose, suspect
lateo, latere, latui, -- escape notice, lie hidden
arcesso, -cessere, -cessivi, -cessitum summon, invoke, send for
tabella, -ae f. program, tablet; note how nostra . . . manu frames mota tabella, a poetic device called chiasmus.
aer, aeris m. air, weather, atmosphere
aestus, aestus m heat, passion; note the more complex chiastic arrangement of hic meus . . . aestus around animi non aeris, with est in the center of the line.
femineus, -a, -um woman's, of women; unmanly. This adjective, with its masculine ending modifying amor, is a sly oxymoron.
torreo, torrere, torrui, tostum scorch, burn, roast
spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsum sprinkle, scatter, strew
pulvis, pulveris m. dust, sand, powder
sordidus, -a, -um dirty, unclean. It is in the vocative case because the speaker addresses the dust.
niveus, -a, -um white, snowy
abeo, abire, abivi, abitus go away, go off, depart
pompa, -ae f. solemn procession, pomp, ostentation. Before the races begin, (gilt) images of the gods were brought in procession around the course and prominently placed to oversee the games. The speaker momentarily turns to look at and speak to the audience and the gods, but the sight of Venus leads him back to his chief object of interest, the woman beside him.
faveo, favere, favi, fautum (w/ ablative of means) favor (+ dative); speak no words of bad omen, be silent; the ritual cry before religious ceremonies commence.
plausus, plausus m. clapping, applause
fero, ferre, tuli, latum carry, bring, bear, win
pando, pandere, pandi, passum spread-out, extend, throw open
Victoria, -ae f. goddess of Victory (Nike in Greek), appropriately first for competitive games.
pinna, -ae f. feather, wing, flap (+ passis = ablative absolute)
facio, facere, feci, factum fac is the imperative, followed by the subjunctive; translate "bring it about that"
Neptunus, i m. god of the sea, brother of Jupiter, husband of Amphitrite; associated with the Greek god Poisedon.
credo, credere, credidi, creditum trust, entrust (+dative)
unda, -ae f. wave
nil mihi supply est.
pelagus, -i m. sea, open sea
Mars, Martis m. son of Juno, he fathered Romulus and Remus on the Vestal Virgin Rhea Sylvia, and thus is the father of the Roman people. Originally the Roman god of fertility and agriculture, he became associated primarily with battle and was widely worshipped by the Romans.
reperio, reperire, repperi, repertum discover, find out, learn; note the emphatic placement of words: pax opens and amor closes the line.
auger, augeris m. augur, diviner, seer
Phoebus, -i m. epithet of Apollo, son of Jupiter and Leto, and twin brother of Diana; archer god of the sun, prophecy, music, and healing.
Phoebe, Phoebes f. epithet of Diana, daughter of Jupiter and Leto, and twin sister of Apollo; goddess of the moon, hunting, forests and wild animals.
venor, venari, venatum hunt, chase. Note the chiastic word order of the gods and their followers.
artifex, artificis, adj. ingenious, artistic, craftsman's
Minerva, -ae f. daughter of Jupiter, virgin goddess of warriors, wisdom, commerce, and the arts, especially weaving
ruricola, -ae m. country-dweller, one who tills the land
Ceres, Cereris f. daughter of Saturn and Rhea, sister of Jupiter, mother of Prosperpina; goddess of agriculture, grain, the country, and motherly love.
tener, tenera, tenerum young, tender, weak
assurgo, -surgere, -surrexi, -surrectum rise up, stand up, lift oneself up
Bacchus, -i m. son of Jupiter and the mortal Semele, he was the god of wine, vegetation, poetry, religious ecstasy.
Pollux, Pollucis m. born with his twin brother Castor from an egg laid by Leda, the swan, his father was Jupiter, his sisters were Helen and Clytemnestra, daughters of Tyndarus. A hero famous for his skill in boxing. He and his brother were inseparable as patron deities of seamen and voyagers and after their deaths were placed in the sky as the Gemini constellation. They were worshiped by the Romans as the Dioscuri (sons of Jupiter), whose assistence they claimed at the battle of Lake Regillus (hence a temple was built for them in the Forum).
pugil, pugilis m. boxer, pugilist
Castor, Castoris m. born with his twin brother Pollux from an egg laid by Leda, the swan, his father was Jupiter, his sisters were Helen and Clytemnestra, daughters of Tyndarus. Inseparable brother of Pollux, he was noted for his skill at taming and managing horses.
blandus, -a, -um charming, smooth-talking, flattering, seductive
Venus, Veneris f. daughter of Jupiter and Dione, she is also portayed as created by Uranus from the foam of the sea at the moment of his death; wife of Vulcan, the lame god of the forge, she is mother of Cupid, Hymen, Priapus and Aeneas. Goddess of love, nature, and beauty, she, along with her lover, Mars, the god of war, are the parent-gods of the Romans.
arcus, arcus m. bow, arc, arch
inceptum, -i n. beginning, undertaking
annuo, -nuere, -nui, -nutus nod assent, declare, indicate, agree
mens, mentis f.- mind (as the seat of passion)
patior, pati, passus sum suffer, endure, allow, permit
motus, motus m gesture, movement, motion
secundus, -a, -um favorable, second
promitto, -mittere, -misi, -missum promise, let grow; note how dea and ipsa frame promisit, promittas.
pax, pacis f. peace; here, in the ablative, translate: "with the approval of"
testis, testis c. witness
pendo, pendere, pependi,--- hang down, hang. The speaker's gaze returns to his girl and he hastens to attend to her comfort and concerns.
cancellus, -i m. railing, bars, barrier
insero, -sere, -serui, -sertum insert, introduce
praetor, praetoris m. an annually elected Roman magistrate whose office was just below that of the consuls, he had six bodyguards (lictores) and was allowed to wear the purple-bordered toga. The praetor urbanus remained in Rome, primarily as a judge in the law courts, but he could also convene the comitia and initiate legislation. In the late Republic through the Empire, he was also responsible for organizing and presiding over the public games (see praetor).
quadriiugus, -a, -um yoked four abreast
studeo, studere, studui, ---- wish, desire, be eager for (+dat.)
me miserum! accusative of exclamation
orbis, orbis, m. circle, world, sphere
admotus, -a, -um lean on, bring up
axis, axis m. axle, chariot, pole, sky
perdo, perdere, perdidi, perditum ruin, destroy, lose, waste
votum, -i n. vow, prayer, wish
tendo, tendere, tetendi, tensum stretch, spread, distend
ignavus, -a, -um lazy, idle, ignorant
Quiris, Quirites m. inhabitants of Cures, the Sabine town; Roman citizen
iactatus, -a, -um tossed, thrown away; a surprising act of popular intervention in the games.
turbo, turbare, turbavi, turbatum disturb, agitate
abdo, -dere, -didi, -ditum hide, remove
licet it is allowed (followed by the subjunctive)
sinus, sinus m. bosom, lap, folds
pateo, patere, patui, ---- be open, stand open
resero, -serare, -seravi, -seratum open up, unseal, unfasten
postis, postis m. doorpost, door
evolo, -volare, -volavi, -volatum fly away, fly forth
discolor, discoloris, adj. of another color, not of the same color, variegated
agmen, agminis n. line, flock, herd, stream
saltem, adv. at least, anyhow
supero, -are, -avi, -atum surpass, survive, conquer
insurgo, -surgere, -surrexi, -surrectum stand up, rise against, grow, swell
ratus, -a, -um established, fixed, certain. The speaker joins the girl in her wish for a winner, holding separate his own hopes; the race ends swiftly and satisfactorily, primising a similar conclusion to his post-race project.
supersum, -esse, -fui, -- remain, survive, be sufficient
palma, -ae f. palm, prize, hand, victory; note the anaphora and alliteration of "p" for emphasis. See Polydus with his winning team.
argutus, -a, -um clear, graceful, witty, sly; after all the girls has won her way!
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Prepared by Kimberly Nickerson and Jennifer Pinheiro with the assistance of Ann Raia.